Antibacterial and Biofilm Degradation Activity of Extract From Steam Distillation Residue of Zingiberaceae Leaves Against Streptococcus mutans
Zingiberaceae is a family of plant that has been widely used to treat various diseases and as an element of spice in cooking. In this paper, the potential of the extract from the steam distillation residue of Zingiberaceae leaves as antibacterial and biofilm degradation agent was studied and determined against Streptococcus mutans. Five different species of Zingiberaceae, which consisted of Curcuma longa, Curcuma zeodoaria, Curcuma aeruginosa, Zingiber officinale, Zingiber cassumunar were taken for samples and their distillation residues were extracted by soxhlation using 3 different solvents namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The antibacterial and biofilm degradation activity of the assay from each of the samples was determined by the microdilution technique. Among the 15 Zingiberaceae leaves distillation residue extracts, five are categorically active against Streptococcus mutans with their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values being the same with that of chloramphenicol, 15.63 μg/mL. All extracts were found to degrade the biofilm. The methanol extract of C. zeodoaria leaves was found to have the highest antibacterial activity with MIC and MIB vaues of 15.63 ppm and the best to degrade the biofilm with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of 15.33 ppm. The antibacterial and biofilm degradation activities of extracts are not related to the phenolic content and it was suggested that terpenoid such as (-)-zingiberene may have been the active component.
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