Synthesis and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Sago Waste (Metroxylon sagu) with ZnCl2 Activation and HNO3 Modification
Previous researches have shown that activated carbon could be made from various raw materials which contain lignocellulose. The aims of this research were to synthesis and characterize the activated carbon obtained from lignocellulose contained in sago waste. The synthesis was conducted through multiple stages of dehydration, carbonization, silica extraction with NaOH, activation by ZnCl2 10%, and surface modification using HNO3 65%, successively. From X-ray fluorescence, it was confirmed that treatment with NaOH removed practically all silica content from the sample with only 1 wt% left. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the samples have amorphous structures before the modification and started to form exfoliated graphite crystals, as shown by the peaks at 2θ 30.27° and 35.10°. The significant result was obtained from the series of processes of carbonization, extraction, activation, and modification using 1.5 mL of HNO3 (CEA 1.5), which produced nanoporous particles with regular homogeneous shapes in the range of 200 nm in size as shown by scanning electron images. Finally, the infrared spectra from activated and modified samples confirmed that the oxygen-containing groups had increased.
A. Bacaoui, A. Yaacoubi, A. Dahbi, C. Bennouna, R. Luu, F. Maldonado, J. Rivera, and C. Moreno, Optimization of Conditions for The Preparation of Activated Carbons from Olive-Waste Cakes, Carbon, 2001, 39, 425-432, DOI: https://doi.org/10.016/S0008-6223(00)00135-4.
B. E. Conway. Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Ottawa Canada, 1999, 67-86, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3058-6.
I. Demiral, C. Samdan, and H. Demiral, Production and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Pumpkin Seed Shell by Chemical Activation with ZnCl2, Desalin. Water Treat., 2015, 57, 2446-2454, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1027276.
A. E. Ismanto, S. Wang, F. E. Soetaredjo, and S. Ismadjid, Preparation of Capacitor’s Electrode from Cassava Peel Waste, Bioresour. Technol. 2010, 101, 3534-3540, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.123.
M. Rosi, P. M. Ekaputra, F. Iskandar, M. Abdullah, and Khairurrijal, A Nanoporous Carbon/Exfoliated Graphite Composite For Supercapacitor Electrodes, AIP Conf. Proceed., 2010, 1325, 86-89, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4757196.
K. H. Choy, J.P. Barford, and G. McKay, Production of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Scaffolding Waste-Process Design, Chem. Eng. J., 2005, 109, 147-165, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2005.02.030.
T. E. Rufford, D. Hulicova, Z. Zhou, and G.U. Lu, Nanoporous Carbon Electrode From Waste Cofee Beans For High-Performance Supercapacitors, Electrochem. Commun., 2008, 10, 1594-1597, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2008.08.022.
X. Li, W. Xing, S. Zhuo, J. Zhuo, F. Li, S. Qiao, and G. Lu, Preparation Of Capacitor’s Electrode From Sunflower Seed Shell, Bioresour. Technol., 2010, 102, 1118-1123, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.110.
K. L. Van and T. T. L. Thi, Activated carbon derived from rice husk by NaOH activation and its application in a supercapacitor, Prog. Natur. Sci. Mater. Internat., 2014, 24, 191-198, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnse.2014.05.012.
C. Peng, X. Yan, R. Wang, J. Lang, Y. Ou, and Q. Xue, Promising Activated Carbon derived from Tea-Leaves and their Application in High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes, Electrochim. Acta, 2013, 87, 401-408, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1010/j.electacha.2012.09.082.
Masdir, M. Zakir, and A. M. Anshar, UNHAS Repository, Penentuan Kapasitansi Karbon Aktif Ampas Tebu (Saccharum officianarum) Hasil Modifikasi HNO3 Dengan Pengukuran Cyclic Voltammetry, 2017, http://respository.unhas.ac.id/handle/123456789/25288, August 15th, 2017.
D. Awg-Adeni, S. Abd-Aziz, K. Bujang, and M. Hassan, Bioconversion of Sago Residu Into Value Added Products, African J Biotech., 2010, 9, 2016-2021.
J.C. Lai, W.A. Rahman, and W.Y. Toh, Characterization of Sago Pith Waste and its Composites, Indust. Crops Produc., 2013, 45, 319-326, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indrop.2012.12.046.
O. Y. Wee, L.P. Ling, K. Bujang, and L. S. Fong, Physiochemical Characteristic of Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Starch Production Wastewater Effluents, Internat. J. Res. Adv. Technol., 2017, 5, 9.
J. Limbongan, Jurnal Litbang Pertanian-Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Papua, Morfologi Beberapa Jenis Sagu Potential di Papua, 2007, 26, 16-24.
A. W. Rauf and M. S. Lestari, Pemanfaatan Komoditas Pangan Lokal Sebagai Sumber Pangan Alternatif di Papua, J. Litbang Pertanian, 2009, 28, 54-62, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v28n2.2009.p54%20-%2062.
M. Friedman, Food Browning and its Prevention, J. Agricul. Food Chem., 1996, 44, 631-653, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950394r.
J. Y. Lian, M. Xu, and Y. Chan, Aqueous-Phase Reactions on Hollow Silica-Encapsulated Semiconductor Nanoheterostructures, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 8754-8757, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja301805u.
A. Bhatnagar, W. Hogland, M. Marques, and M. Sillanpää, An overview of the modification methods of activated carbon for its water treatment applications, Chem. Eng. J., 2013, 219, 499–511, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.12.038.
Z. Al-Qodah and R. Hawablwah, Production and Characterization of Granular Activated Carbon from Activated Sludge, Brazilian J. Chem. Eng., 2009, 26, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66322009000100012.
C. Chilev, Y. Stoycheva, M. Dicko, F. Lamari, P. Langlois, and Ivan Pentchev, A New Procedure for Porous Material Characterization, Inter. J. Sci. Technol. Soc., 2017, 5, 131-140, DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsts.20170504.22.
T.A. Centeno and F. Stoeckli, The Role of Textural Characteristics and Oxigen Containing Surface Groups in The Supercapacitor Performances of Activated Carbon, Electrochim. Acta, 2006, 52, 560-566, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2006.05.035.
Copyright (c) 2019 Yanti Kiding Allo, Sudarmono, Octolia Togibasa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The manuscript will be made open access under the term of the Creative-Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the contribution is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.