Application of Lecithin-templated Mesoporous Silica Microparticles for the Specific and Selective Removal of Phospholipids
Phospholipids are among the many components of algae bio oil, and they harbor the trans-esterification process by poisoning the catalyst, hence the need for they removal prior to this process is crucial. Mesoporous silica materials are feasible and viable candidates for the selective removal of phospholipids by tailoring their surface morphology using different surfactants (templates) for specific and selective adsorption. In this study, the adsorption of phospholipids using lecithin template mesoporous silica microparticles (Leci-MSM) was investigated. Comparative studies using cetyltriammoniumbromide mesoporous microparticles (CTAB-MSM) were also carried out. Both Leci-MSM and CTAB-MSM were synthesized via sol-gel process, packed into mini columns and used for column breakthrough adsorption studies. Scanning electron micrographs revealed a particle size of 5.0 µm for Leci-MSM and 2.95 µm for CTAB-MSM. Textural analysis by BET and BJH exhibited a surface area of 425 and 1210 m2/g for Leci-MSM and CTAB-MSM, respectively. A pore volume of 1.59 and 2.77 cc/g for Leci-MSM and CTAB-MSM, respectively, were also obtained. In addition, Leci-MSM revealed a column breakthrough volume of 28 mL at 41 min, while for the CTAB-MSM was 46 mL at 53 min. The actual adsorption capacity recorded by Leci-MSM was 11.34 mg/g and 8.71 mg/g for CTAB-MSM.
M.V. Rodionova, R.S. Poudyal, I. Tiwari, R.A. Voloshin, S.K. Zharmukhamedov, H.G. Nam and S.I. Allakhverdiev, Biofuel Production: Challenges and Opportunities, Intern. J. Hydro. E., 2017, 42, 8450-8461, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.11.125.
Y.F. Lin, J.H. Chen, S.H. Hsu, H. C. Hsiao, T. W. Chung and K. L. Tung, The synthesis of Lewis Acid ZrO2 Nanoparticles and their Applications in Phospholipid Adsorption from Jatropha Oil used for Biofuel, J. of Coll. Inter. Sci., 2012, 368 (1), 660-662, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2011.11.055.
L. Chen, T . Liu, W. Zhang, X. Chen and J. Wang, Biodiesel Production from Algae Oil high in Free Fatty Acids by Two-Step Catalytic Conversion, Biores. Tech., 2012, 111, 208-214, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.02.033.
R. K. Balasubramanian, T. T. Y. Doan and J. P. Obbard (2013). Factors Affecting Cellular Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalgae, Chem. Eng. J., 2013, 215, 929-936, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.063.
J. Amoah, S. H. Ho, S. Hama, A. Yoshida, A. Nakanishi, T. Hasunuma, A. Kondo, Converting Oils High in Phospholipids to Biodiesel using Immobilized Aspergillus Oryzae Whole-Cell Biocatalysts Expressing Fusarium Heterosporum Lipase, Biochem. Eng. J., 2016, 105, 10-15, DOI: https://doi.org//10.1016/j.bej.2015.08.007.
Y. Watanabe, Y. Shimada, A. Sugihara and Y. Tominaga, Conversion of Degummed Soybean Oil to Biodiesel Fuel with Immobilized Candida Antarctica Lipase, J. Mol. Cat. B: Enzy., 2002, 17(3-5), 151-155.
K. Waldron, W. D. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Liu, C. Selomulya, D. Zhao and X. D. Chen, Formation of Monodisperse Mesoporous Silica Microparticles via Spray-Drying, J. Coll. Inter. Sci., 2014, 418, 225-233, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.12.027.
S. Saroj and S. J. Rajput. Etoposide Encapsulated Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Effect of Functionalization on Dissolution Kinetics in Simulated and Biorelevant Media, J. Drug Deli. Sci. Tech., 2018, 44, 27-40, DOI: https://doi.org//10.1016/j.jddst.2017.11.020.
H. Wanyika, Sustained Release of Fungicide Metalaxyl by Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres, In Nanotech. Sust. Dev., 2013, 321-329, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-013-1831-y.
A. Galarneau, G. Renard, M. Mureseanu, A. Tourrette, C. Biolley, M. Choi and F. Fajula (2007). Synthesis of Sponge Mesoporous Silicas from Lecithin/Dodecylamine Mixed-Micelles in Ethanol/Water Media: A Route Towards Efficient Biocatalysts, Microporo. Mesoporo. Mater., 2007, 104(1-3), 103-114, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.01.017.
S. G. de Ávila, L. C. C. Silva and J. R. Matos, Optimisation of SBA-15 Properties using Soxhlet Solvent Extraction for Template Removal, Microporo. Mesoporo. Mater., 2016, 234, 277-286, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.07.027.
M. A. Smith and R. F. Lobo, A Fractal Description of Pore Structure in Block-Copolymer Templated Mesoporous Silicates, Microporo. Mesoporo. Mater., 2010, 131(1-3), 204-209, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2009.12.023.
J. A. Shusterman, H. E. Mason, J. Bowers, A. Bruchet, E. C. Uribe, A. B. Kersting and H Nitsche, Development and Testing of Diglycolamide Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Sorption of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides, ACS. Appl. Mater. Inter., 2015, 7(37), 20591-20599, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b04481.
J. S. Chung, D. J. Kim, W. S. Ahn, J. H. Ko and W. J. Cheong, Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Silica, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 2004, 21(1), 132-139.
V. Narayanan, Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica Microsphere from Dual Surfactant, Mater. Res., 2008, 11(4), 443-446.
J. García-Martínez, P. , Brugarolas and S. Domínguez-Domínguez, Ordered Circular Mesoporosity Induced by Phospholipids, Microporo. Mesoporo. Mater., 2007, 100(1-3), 63-69, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2006.09.046.
X. Deng, K. Chen and H. Tüysüz, Protocol for the Nanocasting Method: Preparation of Ordered Mesoporous Metal Oxides, Chem. Mater., 2016, 29(1), 40-52, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02645.
Copyright (c) 2019 Lee Wah Lim, David Marikah, Toyohide Takeuchi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The manuscript will be made open access under the term of the Creative-Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the contribution is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.