Secondary Metabolites from Indonesian Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae)

  • Purwantiningsih Sugita Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Dina Anggraini Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Gustini Syahbirin Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Indonesia
  • Dyah Utami Cahyaning Rahayu Department of Chemistry, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Auliya Ilmiawati Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Indonesia
Keywords: Kigelia africana, Anticancer activity, Methyl ferulate (CD-1), CD-2 and B-1 fractions


From the fruit of Kigelia africana three fractions of secondary metabolites were isolated. Fraction 1 (CD-1) was characterized by using UV-Vis, FTIR, 1D and 2D NMR and MS, meanwhile fraction 2 (CD-2) and 3 (B-1) were characterized by LCMS and compared with literature. All these fractions were screened for anticancer activity by using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method to calculate IC50 toward Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 MCF-7 breast cancer and menogaril-resistant mouse leukemia P388 cells. Based on spectroscopic data, CD-1 fraction was identified as methyl ferulate (1). On the other hand, the B-1 and CD-2 fraction did not pure, yet. Based on LCMS data that analyzed by chemspider and masslink software, CD-2 fraction was estimated as compound mixture with dominant compounds like viscumside (2), specioside (3), caffeic acid glucoside (4), ferulic acid (5), meanwhile B-1 fraction was estimated as compound mixture with dominant warfarin alcohol (6), p-Coumaroyl glucose (7) and β - Sitosterol (8) compounds. Nevertheless, all isolated fractions did not show anticancer activity towards both the cancer cells since it had different constituent compared with previous results.


Download data is not yet available.


S. Saini, H. Kaur, B. Verma, Ripudaman, S. K. Singh, Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. An Overview, Nat. Prod. Rad., 2009, 8, 190-197.

A. G. Latunji, and O. Atolani, Comprehensive Scientific Demystification of Kigelia africana: A Review, Afr. J. Pure. Appl. Chem., 2009, 3, 158-164.

H. M. Burkill, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 1. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; 1985. pp. 254-257.

A. S. Singh, A. K. Kumari, Singh, and N. K. Singh, Ethnopharmacology and Pharmacology of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth, Inter. J. Green Pharmacy, Special Issue, 2018, 11, 23-31.

J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal. Handbook of the Birds of the world (eds), Lynx edicions 4, 1997, 415-420.

M. Arbonnier, Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d’Afrique de l’Ouest. 3rd ed. Paris: MNHN Quæ Editions; 2009, pp192.

P. J. Houghton, A. Photiou, S. Uddin, P. Shah, M. Browning, S. J. Jackson, and S. Retsas, Activity of extracts of Kigelia pinnata against Melanoma and Renal Carcinoma Cell Lines, Plant Med., 1994, 60, 430-433.

E. Chivandi, E. Cave, B. C. Davidson, K. H. Eriwanger, D. Mayo, and M. T. Madziva, Suppression of Caco-2 and HEK-293 Cell Proliferation by Kigelia africana, Mimusops zeyheri and Ximenia caffra seed oils. In vivo, 2012, 26, 99-106.

S. J. Jackson, P. J. Houghton, S. Ratsas, and A. Photiou, In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Norviburtinal and Isopinnatal from Kigelia pinnata against Cancer Cell Lines, Plant Med., 2000, 66, 758-761.

P. J. Houghton. The Sausage Tree (Kigelia pinnata): Ethnobotany and Recent Scientific Work, South Afr. J. Botan., 2002, 68, 14-20.

S. L. Sidjui, E. M. Zeuko’o, R. M. K. Toghueo, O. P. Noté, V. M. Leddet, G. Herbette, F. B. Fekam, E. Ollivier, and G. Ng. Folefoc, Secondary Metabolites from Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and Their Anticandidal Activity, Rec. Nat. Prod., 2014, 8 , (3)307-311.

S. L. Sidjui, M. Raduis, M. L. Valérie, H. Gaëtan, T. Alembert, O. Evelyn, and F. Gabrie, Triterpenes and Lignans from Kigelia africana, J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 5 (Suppl 2), 001-006, DOI:

CCRC. Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center. Prosedur Tetap Uji Sitotoksik Metode MTT. Yogyakarta, ID: Fakultas Farmasi, UGM; 2009.

D. F. Yani, P. Sugita, and G. Syahbirin, Phytochemicals and Cytotoxicity of Sausage Fruit (Kigelia africana) Extract against Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7 In Vitro, J. Pharm. Res., 2018, 3(12), 288-292.

A. Ilmiawati, D. Anggraini, G. Syahbirin, DUC Rahayu, and P. Sugita, Methyl Ferulate from Methanol Extract of Indonesian Sausage Fruit (Kigelia africana), AIP Conf. Proceed., 2019, (In press)

A. Arkhipov, J. Sirdaarta, P. Rayan, P. A. McDonnell, and I. E. Cock, Anexamination of the Antibacterial, Antifungal, Anti-Giardial and Anticancer Properties of Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts, Pharmacognosy Commun., 2014, 4(3), 62-76, DOI:

R. Costa, A. Albergamo, V. Pellizzeri, G. Dugo, Phytochemical Screening by LC-MS and LC-PDA of Ethanolic Extracts from Fruits of Kigelia afircana (Lam.) Benth, Natur. Prod. Res., 2016, 31(12), 1397-1402. DOI: 2016.1253080.

M. R. Kha, and S. M. Mlungwana, γ-Sitosterol, a Cytotoxic Sterol from Markhamia zanzibarica and Kigelia africana, Fitoterapia 1999, 70, 96-97.

M. C. Alley, D. A. Scudiero, A. Monks, M. L. Hursey, M. J. Czerwinski, D. L. Fine, et al. Feasibility of Drug Screening with Panels of Human Tumor Cell Lines using a Microculture Tetrazolium Assay, Cancer Res., 1988, 48, 589-601.

T. Masuda, K. Yamada, T. Maekawa, Y. Takeda, and H. Yamaguchi, Antioxidant Mechanism Studies on Ferulic Acid: Isolation and Structure Identification of the Main Antioxidation Product from Methyl Ferulate, Food Sci. Technol. Res., 2006., 12(3), 173-177.

A. C. Figueiredo, J. G. Barroso, L. G. Pedro, and J. J. C. Scheffer, Factors Affecting Secondary Metabolite Production in Plants: Volatile Components and Essential Oils, Flavour Fragr J., 2008, 23, 213-226.

CD-1, CD-2 and B-1 fractions isolated from Indonesian fruit of Kigelia africana were test for its anticancer activity. The plant was collected from Botanical Garden, Bogor Indonesia. All fractions did not show anticancer activity for both MCF-7 breast cancer and P-388 murin leukemia cells.  In contrast, the previous research, fractions isolated from EtOAc extract of K. africana which was collected from PT. Alam Indah Bunga Nusantara, Cianjur, Indonesia showed relatively high inhibitions (above 80%) against cancer cells MCF-7. The difference in results due to compounds identified by LCMS were different. The identified compounds were 5,7-dimethoxy-4-methyl coumarin, 3-hydroxy-β-lapachone, 7H, 8H-dipenalen-9,2-b:2,1-difuran-7.8- dione, and 3’,6-dimethyl flavone. Therefore the anticancer activity was also different.
How to Cite
Sugita, P., Anggraini, D., Syahbirin, G., Rahayu, D. U. C., & Ilmiawati, A. (2019). Secondary Metabolites from Indonesian Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae). Journal of the Indonesian Chemical Society, 2(2), 114.