Conversion of Bioethanol to Diethyl Ether Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid and Zeolite

  • Wahyu Fajar Winata Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Karna Wijaya Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1831-3091
  • Suheryanto Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
  • Ady Mara Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
  • Widi Kurniawati Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Keywords: Bioethanol, Condensation reaction, Ethoxy ethane, Sulfuric acid, H-Zeolite

Abstract

Ethoxy ethane, or diethyl ether, has been successfully synthesized through the condensation reaction of bioethanol produced from fruit waste fermentation using acid-activated H-Zeolite, H2SO4/H-Zeolite, and H2SO4 as catalysts. Zeolite activation was carried out using the acidification method with 1 M, 2 M, 4 M, and 6 M  H2SO4 for 24 hours. Activated zeolites were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and NaOH titration. The condensation reaction of bioethanol was carried out by catalysis of  H2SO4/H-Zeolite with various concentrations of 1 M, 2 M, 4 M, and 6 M and catalyzed by 2 M, 4 M, and 6 M acid-activated H-Zeolite. The condensation reaction process was carried out with a ratio of bioethanol to catalyst of 2:1 (w/w) using the fractional distillation method. Ethoxy ethane resulting from the condensation reaction was characterized using a GC instrument.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

M. Parsaee, M.K.D. Kiani, and K. Karimi, A Review of Biogas Production from Sugarcane Vinasse, Biomass Bioenerg., 2019, 122, 117–125, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2019.01.034.

A. C. Wilkie, K. J. Riedesel, and J. M. Owens, Stillage Characterization and Anaerobic Treatment of Ethanol Stillage from Conventional and Cellulosic Feedstocks, Biomass Bioenerg., 2000, 19(2), 63–102, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00017-9.

V. Robles-González, J. Galíndez-Mayer, N. Rinderknecht-Seijas, and H. M. PoggiVaraldo, Treatment of Mezcal Vinasses: A Review, J. Biotechnol., 2012, 157(4), 524–546, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.09.006.

F. Zaccheria, N. Scotti, and N. Ravasio, Solid Acids for the Reaction of Bioderived Alcohols into Ethers for Fuel Applications, Catalysts, 2019, 9, 172–193, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/catal9020172.

I. Schifter, U. González, L. Díaz, C. González-Macías, and I. Mejía-Centeno, Experimental and Vehicle (on road) Test Investigations of Spark-ignited Engine Performance and Emissions using High Concentration of MTBE as Oxygenated Additive, Fuel, 2017, 187, 276–284, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.09.044.

S. Golay, L. Kiwi-Minsker, R. Doepper, and A., Renken, Influence of the Catalyst Acid/Base Properties on the Catalityc Ethanol Dehidration Under Study State and Dynamic Condition, In Situ Surface and Gas Fase Analysis, Chem. Eng. Sci., 1999, 54, 3593–3598.

J. Haber, K. Pamin, L. Matachowsky, B. Napruszewska, and J. Poltowicz, Potassium and Silver Salts of Tongstophosporic Acid as Catalysts in Dehidration of Ethanon and Hydration of Ethylene, J. Catal, 2002, 207, 296–306, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcat.2002.3514.

T. Zaki, Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol using Transition Metal Oxide Catalyst, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2005, 284, 606–613, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.10.048

S. S. Vieiraa, I. Graça, A. Fernandes, J. M. F. M. Lopes, M. F. Ribeiro, and Z. M. Magriotis, Influence of Calcination Temperature on Catalytic, Acid and Textural Properties of SO42−/La2O3/HZSM-5 Type Catalysts for Biodiesel Production by Esterification, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., 2018, 270, 189–199, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.10.048

Y. Arryanto, Elusidasi Struktur Material Anorganik dengan Infra-Red Spektroskopi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 2011.

M. Sakizci and L. O. Tanriverdi, Influence of Acid and Heavy Metal Cation Exchange Treatments on Methane Adsorption Properties of Mordenite, Turk. J. Chem., 2015, 39, 970–983, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3906/kim-1501-71.

W. Trisunaryanti, Optimasi Waktu dan Rasio Katalis/Umpan pada Proses Perengkahan Katalitik Fraksi Sampah Plastik Menjadi Fraksi Bensin Menggunakan Katalis Cr/Zeolit Alam, Indones. J. Chem., 2002, 2(1), 30–40, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21930.

The results showed that zeolite activation using 2 M, 4 M, and 6 M H2SO4 increased the crystallinity and the acidity of natural zeolite from 1.50 mmol/gram to 2.50 mmol/gram. The optimum ethoxy ethane was obtained through the use of 2 M H2SO4/H-Zeolite and 2 M H2SO4-activated H-Zeolite as catalysts, yielding 23.72% and 22.43%, respectively. H2SO4/H-Zeolite homogeneous catalyst could produce ethoxy ethane in a greater amount than H-Zeolite catalyst.
Published
2020-12-30
How to Cite
Winata, W. F., Wijaya, K., Suheryanto, Mara, A., & Kurniawati, W. (2020). Conversion of Bioethanol to Diethyl Ether Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid and Zeolite. Journal of the Indonesian Chemical Society, 3(3), 151. https://doi.org/10.34311/jics.2020.03.3.151