Proceedings of the Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS <p align="justify"><strong>Editor-in-Chief: </strong>Muhamad Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Ph.D. (Institut Teknologi Bandung,<strong> INDONESIA</strong>)<strong><br>Vice Editor-in-Chief: </strong>Dr. Jarnuzi Gunlazuardi (Universitas Indonesia, <strong>INDONESIA</strong>)<strong><br>Journal Manager: </strong>Yuniar Ponco Prananto, M.Sc. (Universitas Brawijaya,<strong> INDONESIA</strong>)</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Proceedings of the Indonesian Chemical Society (PICS) </strong>is one of the scientific international proceedings published under Indonesian Chemical Society (ICS or Himpunan Kimia Indonesia, HKI) with the single-blind peer review process. PICS publishes selected papers from the conferences or symposium in Chemistry and related science, such as the International Conference of the Indonesian Chemical Society (ICICS) which annually held by the HKI. Except for the first year with 2 issues, PICS publish three issues (numbers) annually in English, issue 1 in <strong>February-March</strong>, issue 2 in <strong>June-July</strong>, and issue 3 in <strong>October-November</strong>.</p> en-US pics@journal.hki.or.id (Muhamad Abdulkadir Martoprawiro) admin@journal.hki.or.id (HKI Journal Administration) Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Investigation of Voltammetric Reduction Profile of N2O on Platinum Working Electrode https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=24 <p>This paper reports the development of N<sub>2</sub>O voltammetric sensor that focused on optimization of potential scan rate and concentration of electrolyte, as well as evaluation of the presence some interfering gases. Pt microelectroda, Au metal wire and mini Ag/AgCl serve as the working, counter and reference electrode respectively. Solution of tetrabutyl ammonium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide (0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.150 M) was used as electrolyte solution. The scan rate applied to the working electrode was varied: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 200 mV/sec, in the potential range of 0.0 to -2.8 volts. O<sub>2</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> were chosen as the interfering gases as their presence in the ambient air are very dominant. The optimum sensor response was achieved at a scan rate 100mV/sec and concentration of 0.100 M TBAP and able to work well on N<sub>2</sub>O gas concentration range from 4% to 20%. O<sub>2</sub> was found as main interference, however CO<sub>2</sub> was not providing a significant interference response to the sensor.</p> Siswoyo, Harum S. Andini, Dwi Indarti Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=24 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Distribution of Chlorophylls and Carotenoids in the Different Parts of Thallus Structure from Three Sargassum spp. as Revealed by Multi-Chromatograms HPLC Approach https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=19 <p>Macroalgae such as <em>Sargassum</em> sp. has a unique morphology. Its thallus consists of three different parts: stem-like, leaf-like, and vesicles. Each part of the thallus contains photosystems, which support its photosynthetic growth. Here we report the distribution of chlorophylls and carotenoids in the different part of thallus from three <em>Sargassum </em>spp. variants. &nbsp;We found that the dominant pigments are chlorophyll <em>a</em> and fucoxanthin. The chlorophyll <em>c</em>, siphonein, violaxanthin, flavoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and <em>β</em>-carotene were also found as an accessory pigment. Prior to analysis, we develop a multi-chromatograms approach by employing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detection, which able to extract directly spectroscopic data from 350 to 700 nm wavelengths.</p> Renny Indrawati, Heriyanto, Tatas H. P. Brotosudarmo, Leenawaty Limantara Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=19 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Isolation and Characterization of fim-C S. Typhi Gene 0.8 Kilo Base as a Preliminary Study to Discover a Candidate of Recombinant Vaccine for Typhoid Fever https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=23 <p><em>Salmonella typhi</em> is bacteria that cause typhoid fever for human. In Indonesia, the morbidity rate of typhoid fever’s suffer tends to increase. The common method to prevent typhoid fever is to weaken the vaccine of S. typhi bacteria. However this kind of vaccine has weaknesses that occur in several side effects, such as nausea, vomit, fever, and headache. Therefore this research is aimed to isolate and to characterize the gene structure of fim-C <em>S. Typhi</em> local strain of 0.8 kilobase as an initial study to develop the recombinant vaccine. This research used explorative method that consists of (1) designing the specific primer of fim-C <em>S. typhi</em> gene; (2) synthesize the specific primer pair of fim-C <em>S. typhi</em> gene; (3) isolate the genome of S. typhi bacteria; (4) amplificate the fim-C gene by PCR; (5) characterize the amplification result fim-C S. typhi gene. The specific primer from the designing process (Fw 1b-Rev 1a New) has succeeded to amplify the S. typhi genome showed by one band of 0.8 kilobase by using gel agarose electrophoresis. The characterization of 0.8 kilobase band from the amplification result by using sequencing technique succeded to detect 766 base pairs. It is concluded that this research has succeeded to isolate and to characterize fim-C gene S. typhi local strain of of 0.8 kilobase. This fim-C gene has possibility for developing a recombinant vaccine candidate in the further study.</p> Muktiningsih Nurjayadi, Irma Ratna Kartika, Fera Kurniadewi, M.S. Dwi Destiana, Sinta Nurhidayati Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=23 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Chemical Constituents of Tenggulun (Protium Javanicum, Burm, F) Leaf https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=25 <p><em>Protium Javanicum, Burm</em>, F, locally known as Tenggulun, have been used in Balinese traditional culinary and medicines. Although this plant has not received much attention for medicinal uses in Indonesia, the literature on the genera of Protium shows it has worldwide importance source of natural medicines. As a phytochemical study on Indonesian plants, it would be of some interest to investigate the chemical constituents of this plant. The Leaves of Tenggulun collected at Bukit Jimbaran Bali, were air dried, blended to yield a powder and then extracted with ethanol. The crude ethanol extract was then shaken with ether to give two fractions, the ether-soluble fraction A, and the ether insoluble fraction B. The fraction A was first subjected to GC-MS to analyse any volatile compound present and subsequently separated on silica gel column chromatography with gradient elution by increasing polarity using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol respectively. While the fraction B was hydrolysed with 1 M HCl. The major components of volatile compounds obtained from Tenggulun leaf were sesquiterpenes i.e: caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and spathulenol. The non-volatile compounds that have been isolated were a series of long chain aliphatic alcohol, a binary mixture of α and ß-amyrin, and ß-sitosterol. In addition, the compound obtained from hydrolysis of insoluble material was tentatively deduced as a long chain aliphatic diol.</p> Ni Made Puspawati, R.H. Prager, M.V. Perkin Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=25 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 Anticancer Activity of Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe Essential Oils Against Myeloma Cells https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=20 <p>Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled of cell growth. <em>Curcuma zedoaria</em> (Berg.) Roscoe is a plant that can be used for treating various diseases such as cancer. This research aims to identify and to study the bioactivity of the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria essential oils towards myeloma cells. The rhizome was distilled using steam distillation to obtain its essential oils. Toxicity test towards Artemia salina L. was used as a prescreening of anticancer oils. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy). While In vitro anticancer test was carried out towards myeloma cells. About 20 kg of the rhizome produced 15.30 mL (13.49 g) of yellowish essential oils. The prescreening test towards Artemia salina L. showed that the oils were toxic with the LC<sub>50</sub> of 19.95 ppm. Eight compounds (a-pinene; champhene; 1,8-sineol; camphor; 1-ethenyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl) cyclohexane; furanodiene; germacrone; and velleral) can be identified of the compounds of the oils based on their similarity with the GC-MS database. In vitro test toward myeloma cells showed that oils can inhibit the growth of myeloma cells, but canno tbe said to be anticancer since the LC<sub>50</sub> was greater than 1000ppm.</p> Wiwik Susanah Rita, I Made Dira Swantara, Ni Luh Sugiantini Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=20 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0700 The Synthesis and Characterization of Acetamide Compounds from α-pinene and Acetonitrile through Ritter Reaction https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=26 <p>The ultimate objectives of this research were to synthesize and characterize acetamides as α-pinene derivative compounds produced through Ritter reaction between α-pinene and acetonitrile. Turpentine oil was isolated through fractional distillation under diminished pressure of 50-100mmHg and temperature of 70-90°C, which produced 91.33% of α-pinene as the distillate. Meanwhile, the procedure of the synthesis involved dissolving acetonitrile in α-pinene, adding sulfuric acid dropwise at 6 drops per minute and stirring at room temperature, followed by extraction with diethyl ether and concentrated with N<sub>2</sub> gas. The compounds produced from turpentine oil isolation and synthesis through Ritter reaction is characterized by Infra-Red Spectrophotometer and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The distillate α-pinene was found to readily react with acetonitrile under the catalysis of concentrated sulfuric acid to give varieties of acetamide compounds as the products. The corresponding acetamide compounds resulted in good yields were based on its carbocation stability and rearrangement, which were N-[1-Methyl-1-(4-methyl-cyclohex-3-enyl)-ethyl]-acetamide (51.3%) as the main product and N-(2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(3.1.1) hept-2-yl)-acetamide (4.86%) and N-(1,5-Dimethyl-1-vinyl-hex-4-enyl)-acetamide (20.29%) as the byproducts.</p> Zahra Ramadhany Hidayat, Mohammad Farid Rahman Copyright (c) 2019 Proceedings of the Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=26 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 17:02:26 +0700 Preparation of Colloidal Ag Nanoparticles Using the Biologically Compatible Polymers and Reducing Agents https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=27 <p>Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have been studied extensively due to its possible applications such as catalysts, electronic devices, anti-bacterial, medical applications and sanitation. For medical applications and sanitations, the colloidal Ag nanoparticles must be stable for a long period and biocompatible. In this contribution, we report on the preparation of silver nano-colloids in the biologically compatible polymers of chitosan, as opposed to synthetic polymers, and biocompatible reducing agents. The Ag colloids with nanometer size of 20-80 nm in diameter are prepared by reducing silver ions in the concentration range of 100-300 mg/L in the 1% chitosan solution at 95 <sup>o</sup>C.&nbsp; The piper beetle leaves extract was added as a biocompatible reducing agent. The silver nano colloid is stable for up to 6 weeks. The colloidal Ag nanoparticle has a UV-Vis absorption spectra with wavelength maxima at around 420-450 nm. The silver nanoparticle has an fcc crystal system with a unit cell of 4.07 angstrom. The results were comparable to the previous findings obtained in the polyvinyl alcohol and the addition of ascorbic acid as a reducing agent.</p> Roto, Dita Floresyona Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=27 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 17:04:55 +0700 Preliminary Study of the Potential of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Immobilized in Agar for Degradation of Sugarcane Bagasse https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=21 <p>Previous research has shown that the culture of <em>Phanerochaete chrysosporium</em> in stationary phase is able to degrade sugarcane bagasse to glucose in a single reaction step. The aims of this study is to study the ability of P. <em>chrysosporium</em>&nbsp;immobilized in agar with or without rejuvenation to degrade bagasse and to determine the optimum process conditions comprising method, amount of bagasse, temperature and incubation time. The immobilized P. <em>chrysosporium</em> without rejuvenation&nbsp;was incubated with bagasse directly, while the immobilized P. chrysosporium within rejuvenation first incubated in N-limited growth media for 48 hours and washed before being incubated with bagasse. Glucose as a parameter to determine the ability of degradation is determined by the Somogy-Nelson method. The yield of bagasse degradation by the immobilized P. <em>chrysosporium</em> without or with the rejuvenation was 1.78% and 1.07% respectively, with 2g bagasse, for 7 days incubated, at 37°C, and shaking rate of 50 rpm. The optimum condition of bagasse degradation was conducted by the immobilized stationary phase P. <em>chrysosporium</em> (0.065 g dry weight) in 3.3% agar without rejuvenation for as much as 4 g of bagasse, the incubation temperature of 37 ° C, for 7 days, giving degradation rate of 1.045%.</p> Rosita Yusnidar, Evi Susanti, Subandi Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Chemical Society https://journal.hki.or.id/index.php?journal=PICS&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=21 Fri, 28 Jun 2019 17:06:56 +0700